Pre-Health Profession - Medicine, Dentistry, etc..


TU/NYU B.S.-DDS Program. The newly formed partnership program between Tuskegee University and New York University provides students with the opportunity to be admitted into the New York University School of Dentistry while matriculating at Tuskegee University. The purpose of the program is to increase the number of African American students pursuing dentistry, increase awareness about the different career paths available to people with a dental degree, and to increase the number of African American dentists. Components of the program are mentoring, DAT preparation, and in some cases, participation in summer research programs at NYU. Students can enter the program as early as the second semester of their freshman year as long as the following criteria are met.

(1)     Students must obtain and maintain a grade point average (GPA) of 3.3.
(2)     Students must participate in prescribed activities through the partnership.
(3)     Students must get competitive scores on the DAT.

Students should submit applications to the Tuskegee University Pre-Health Careers Advisory Program (PHCAP) Committee. Students meeting the above criteria and completing the application and interview process at Tuskegee University will be recommended to interview with the NYU School of Dentistry Admissions Committee. Students admitted into the program are expected to show a strong commitment to the field of dentistry and serve as role models for other Tuskegee University students.

Pre-Health Professions. The Biology curriculum provides students with the necessary requirements to gain admission into Medical, Dental, Optometry, Physical Therapy, Physician’s Assistant, and Public Health programs. Any student interested in entering a health professions program after graduation from Tuskegee University should consult with the Pre-Medical Coordinator and with the Graduate and Health Professions Advisor. Housed in the Biology Department and coordinated by Biology Department Faculty and Staff is the Pre-Health Careers Advisory Program (PHCAP). Students are advised to attend PHCAP-sponsored forums focusing on topics relevant to preparing for health careers. Students applying to health professional schools are advised to submit applications to PHCAP. The Coordinator and the PHCAP Committee review applications, edit personal statements, conduct interviews, and mail completed student application packets to the appropriate health professional schools. 

Minority Biomedical Research Support – Support for Continuous Research Excellence (MBRS-SCORE) Program. The purpose of the MBRS Support of Continuous Research Excellence (SCORE) Program is to assist faculty engaged in biomedical research at Tuskegee University with the development of competitive research programs, as well as increase the number of underrepresented minorities at Tuskegee University conducting biomedical research. Funding is provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to faculty to establish research laboratories, attend national scientific meetings, establish biomedical seminars for faculty and students, and promote student research through mentoring. Students enrolled in undergraduate research can gain experience from faculty members in Biology or from other biomedical departments on campus. Some of the research conducted on campus has emphasis in cancer, toxicology, or reproductive physiology.

Expanding New Horizons in Advancing Novel Concepts in Experimental Sciences (ENHANCES). The ENHANCES program is supported by a grant from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) under the auspices of its Undergraduate Biological Sciences Education Program. The ultimate goal of this program is to strengthen the national quality of undergraduate science education and research in biology and chemistry at institutions of higher education in the United States. Additionally, the HHMI program strives to increase the number of minority graduates who pursue graduate research education and careers in the biomedical and health sciences.

Tuskegee University through the HHMI Program has chosen to accomplish these goals by providing undergraduates, including women and students of underrepresented minorities in the sciences, with opportunities to learn science through meaningful research experiences, preceded by a period of training to learn essential techniques and technology. Research training is enhanced when accompanied by opportunities for students to work closely with research scientists, to present their research and, when appropriate, to publish findings. Studies suggest that these research experiences are frequently most valuable when preceded by an adequate period of training in which students can learn essential techniques and terminology.

Study Abroad Program with the Organization of Tropical Studies (OTS). The Organization of Tropical Studies is a consortium of approximately 60 universities that provide education experiences in Tropical Ecology and Ethnobiology in Costa Rica. Students may participate in the summer programs or the semester program. For the summer programs, students are provided with either a stipend or a scholarship to cover expenses for courses, housing, and transportation. A Biology Department faculty representative serves as a member of the National Fellowship Advisory Committee (NFAC) to OTS and is responsible for recruiting African American students for the program. The purpose of NFAC is to make minority students aware of the field of Tropical Ecology in order to increase the number of students who may pursue a career in this area.

CURRICULUM FOR THE BIOLOGY MAJOR

Freshman Year

 

1st Semester
Cr.
  2nd Semester
Cr.
BIOL 140 Environmental Biology
3
BIOL 120 Organismic Biology
3
BIOL 141 Environmental Biol. Lab
1
BIOL 121 Organismic Biol. Lab
1
ENGL 101 English Composition I #
3
ENGL 102 Eng. Composition II #
3
HIST 103 World Civilization I
3
HIST 104 World Civilization II +
3
MATH 107 Coll. Algebra & Trig I @
4
MATH 108 Coll. Algebra & Trig II @
4
OREN 100 Freshman Orientation
1
OREN 101 Freshman Orientation
1
PHED   Elective
1
PHED   Elective
1
BIOL 100 Freshman Biol. Seminar #
1
 
Total...
17
Total...
16

 

Sophomore Year

1st Semester
Cr.
  2nd Semester
Cr.
BIOL 230 Cell & Genetic Biol. #
4
BIOL 250 Mol. Cell & Gen. Biol. #
4
BIOL 231 Cell & Gen. Biol. Lab #
1
BIOL 251 Mol.Cell/Gen Biol. Lab#
1
CHEM 231 General Chemistry I
3
CHEM 232 Gen. Chemistry II
3
CHEM 233 Gen. Chemistry Lab I
1
CHEM 234 Gen. Chemistry Lab II
1
PHYS 301/310 Elem. or Gen. Physics I
3
PHYS 302/311 Elem. or Gen. Phys. II
3
PHYS 303/313 Gen. Phys. Lab I
1
PHYS 304/314 Gen. Phys. Lab II
1
SOSC   Electiv
3
HUMN   Elective
2
Total...
16
Total...
15

 

Junior Year

1st Semester
Cr.
  2nd Semester
Cr.
BIOL   Elective
4
BIOL   Elective
4
CHEM 320 Organic Chemistry I
3
CHEM 321 Organic Chem. II
3
CHEM 322 Organic Chem. Lab I
2
CHEM 323 Org. Chemi. Lab II ,
2
HUMN   Elective
3
SOSC   Elective
3
    S, kills Elective
3
    Skills Elective
3
Total...
15
Total...
 

 

Senior Year

1st Semester
Cr.
  2nd Semester
Cr.
BIOL   Elective
3
BIOL   Elective
4
BIOL   Elective
3
    Free Elective
3
HUMN   Elective
2
HUMN   Elective
3
SOSC   Elective
3
SOSC   Elective
3
    Skills Elective
3
    Skills Elective
3
BIOL   Seminar in Biology I
1
 
Total...
15
Total...
16

 

Based on SAT/ACT results, a student may be required to take Reading 101 and/or 102. Each Reading course yields 1 cr.  hr. and must be taken the first year. Additionally, a student may be required to take Eng 100, a 3 cr hr course. (If required; credit does not count toward graduation.) A minimum “C” grade of “C” is required in Eng 100 and Reading.

# Minimum grade of "C" required in ALL Biology courses and in English 101, 102.

° Chemistry 561, 562 and Environmental Science 500 can be used as Biology electives.

@ Two required Math courses will be selected at levels from or above Math 107, depending upon  placement scores.

+ History 345 may be substituted for History 104.

* HIST, SOWK, SOCI, PSYC, GEOG, ECON, POLS; 6 hrs must be from single area.

** ENGL, Foreign Language (limit of 3 hr), HUMN, PHIL, FPAR, MUSC (limit of 3 hr from band and choir).

*** Eng. 203 OR 204 required; 6 hrs  of remaining 9 from one Skills Area (below); last 3 hours  from any Skills area.

Area 1 (Communication): ENGL 201, 309, 324, 327, 332, PHIL 238, SOWK 354

Area 2 (Foreign Language): 6-9 hours in same language

Area 3 (Mathematical Reasoning): MATH 207 or 227, 208, 209, 407; PHIL 237

Area 4 (Chemical Analysis): CHEM 237, 238, 307, 308, 401, 403, 402, 404, 541

Area 5 (Business): BUSN 102, 211, 212, 311, 312, 331, 351

Area 6 (Bioethics): PHIL 203, 204, 205, 325, 347, 350; Sociology, 470

Area 7 (Computer Technology): CSCI 100, 110, 227, 229, 401, 402, 429

 

INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY COURSES FOR SCIENCE MAJORS

BIOL 0100. FRESHMAN BIOLOGY SEMINAR. 1st or 2nd Semester. Lect./Lab. 2 hours, 1 credit hour. An


 

 introductory biology course required of majors. This course is designed to assist students in transition to the academic community and to increase student awareness of the breadth of career opportunities available to the qualified biology major. Emphasis is placed on the acquisition of academic and management skills, developing an awareness of career options, and the use of microcomputers as learning and information management tools.

BIOL 0120. ORGANISMIC BIOLOGY. 2nd Semester, Summer, On Demand. Lect. 3, 3 credits. Designed for potential biology majors. The course deals with diversity, morphology, physiology, relationships and importance of animals, plants and other organisms.

BIOL 0121. ORGANISMIC BIOLOGY LABORATORY. 2nd Semester, Summer, On Demand. Lab 2, 1 credit. An introductory level laboratory course to correlate with Biology 120. A survey of organisms and their evolutionary relationship is the main focus of the course content. The anatomical features of representative specimens from the five kingdoms are studied. Experiments demonstrating various physiological processes are also included. Corequisite: BIOL 0120.

BIOL 0140. ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY. 1st and 2nd Semester. Lect. 3, 3 credits. An introductory course offered to potential biology majors, minors and students seeking to fulfill the general science requirement. An examination of ecological principles and environmental problems.

BIOL 0141. ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY LABORATORY. 1st and 2nd Semesters. Lab 1, 1 credit. A laboratory course to coordinate with Biology 140. Experiments and field trips demonstrating ecological principles, environmental problems. Prerequisite: concurrent or previous registration in BIOL 0140.

BIOL 0230. CELL AND GENETIC BIOLOGY. 1st Semester, Summer, On Demand. Lect. 3, 3 credits. A sophomore level course designed specifically for science-oriented curricula and students seeking to fulfill the general science requirement. The course introduces the student to the chemical basis of life, contemporary concepts of the morphology and physiology of cell membranes, cellular organelles and basic genetic principles.

BIOL 0231. CELL AND GENETIC BIOLOGY LABORATORY. 1st Semester, Summer on Demand. Lab 2, 1 credit. A sophomore level course offered to correlate with BIOL 0230. Instructions are given in the use of light microscopy, measurement and data collection and analysis. Experiments are designed to address cell structure/function relationships, chemical reactivity, cell respiration, Mendelian and human genetics and evaluation. Corequisite BIOL 0230.

BIOL 0250. MOLECULAR CELL AND GENETIC BIOLOGY. 2nd Semester. Lect. 3, 3 credits. A course designed for biology majors at the sophomore level. Emphasis is on fundamentals of biochemistry and molecular aspects of genetics. Topics covered include bioenergetics, cellular metabolism, structure and function of proteins and nucleic acids, genetic engineering and gene regulation. Prerequisite: Biology Majors or permission of the Instructor. BIOL 0230/0231, CHEM 0231. Corequisite: BIOL 0251.

BIOL 0251. MOLECULAR CELL AND GENETIC BIOLOGY. 2nd Semester. Lab 3, 1 credit. Basic biochemical or molecular cell biology techniques, strategies and findings. Topics correlate with Biology 0250. Prerequisites: Biology Majors or permission of the Instructor. BIOL 0230/0231, CHEM 0231. Corequisite: BIOL 0250.

COURSES PRIMARILY FOR UNDERGRADUATES

BIOL 0204. INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY. 1st Semester. Lect. 3, Lab 3, 4 credits. Morphology, physiology, phylogeny, taxonomy, and ecology of the invertebrate phyla. Prerequisite: BIOL 0120/0121 or Permission of Instructor.

BIOL 0206. GENERAL BOTANY. 1st Semester. Lect. 3, Lab 2, 4 credits. Survey of the Plant Kingdom. Emphasis on the flowering Plants (Angiosperms): morphology, growth characteristics, anatomy, physiology, reproduction and ecology.

BIOL 0207. PLANT TAXONOMY. On Demand. Lect. 2, Lab 3, 3 credits. Identification of major flowering plants of Macon County. Classification of flowering plants. Field trips. Prerequisite: BIOL 0112 or 0120, or 0206 or consent of instructor.

BIOL 0211. GENERAL PLANT SCIENCE. 2nd Semester. Lect. 2, Lab 3, 3 credits. Same as Plant and Soil Science 211. Introduction to the fundamental plant processes and a survey of horticultural and agronomic plants and practices.

BIOL 0301. GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY. 1st and 2nd Semesters, Summer on Demand. Lect. 3, 3 credits. Emphasis on bacteria, their growth and control, composition and structure, nutrition and metabolism, classification, ecology, role in nature and significance to man. Consideration is also given to other microbial forms. Prerequisite: BIOL 0111 or 0230.

BIOL 0303. GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORY. 1st and 2nd Semesters, Summer on Demand. Lab 2, 1 credit. A laboratory course to correlate with BIOL 0301. Correquisite: BIOL 0301.

BIOL 0302. VERTEBRATE EMBRYOLOGY. On Demand. Lect. 3, Lab 4, 4 credits. A study in the comparative development of vertebrate embryos with special emphasis on the frog, chick and pig. In addition to developmental anatomy the course will extend into developmental genetics, cellular differentiation, and developmental organic evolution. Prerequisite: BIOL B120, 0230 and 0250 or consent of the instructor.

BIOL 0305. ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY. 1st and 2nd Semesters, Summer on Demand. Lect. 3, Lab 3, 4 credits. A lecture/laboratory study of vertebrate systems with special emphasis on circulation, respiration, digestion, excretion, nervous responses, endocrine control, and reproduction. Prerequisite: One year of biology and one year of chemistry.

BIOL 0309. GENETICS. 1st and 2nd Semesters. Lect. 3, Lab 2, 4 credits. This introductory course presents a balanced treatment of the three major areas of genetics: classical, population and molecular. Fundamental microorganisms are also discussed. Classical and molecular laboratory exercises are designed to promote understanding of concepts and interpretation of observed phenomena. Prerequisite: BIOL 0230, 0250/0251, MATH 0107 or permission of instructor.

BIOL 0310. COMPARATIVE VERTEBRATE ANATOMY. On Demand. Lect. 3, Lab 3, 4 credits. A comparative study of the structure of representative vertebrate organisms. Prerequisite: BIOL 0230, 0120 and 0140.

BIOL 0311. GENERAL ECOLOGY. 2nd Semester. Lect. 3, Lab 3, 4 credits. A study of the relationships between organisms and their environments. Emphasis on field work. Prerequisite: Three semesters of biology.

BIOL 0315. GENERAL NEUROBIOLOGY. 2nd Semester. Lect. 3, Lab 3, 4 credits. This course is designed to provide the student with basic information in Neurobiology through lecture and laboratory sessions. Lectures include Gross Anatomy of the nervous system and the general divisions of the brain; organization and functions of the nervous system; membrane biophysics; nerve and muscle relationships; physical excitation and nervous control of the heart; nervous control of body functions; special senses; neutral plasticity, learning and memory. Laboratory sessions include dissection of sheep brain, learning the ionic basis of action potential generation in squid axon using the computer program “neurosim”. Voltage clamp experiments and ion channel reconstitution in bilayer membranes are performed. Prerequisite: BIOL 0120/0121, 0230/0231.

BIOL 0340. CELL BIOLOGY. 1st and 2nd Semesters. Lect. 3, Lab 3, 4 credits. A study of the modern aspects of structure-function relationships in the cell and its organelles. Prerequisite: Three semesters of biology, one year of chemistry, junior or higher standing.

BIOL 0360. BIOCHEMISTRY OF CELL REGULATION. 2nd Semester. Lect. 3, 3 credits. Fundamental principles of biochemistry (protein structure and function, conformational change, kinetics, thermodynamics, equilibrium, etc.) are covered. Cell biology topics will include plasma membrane and membrane proteins, cell-signaling cascades, regulation of gene transcription and translation, regulation of the cell cycle, cancer and oncogenes, nerve transmission, and immune response. Also listed as CHEM 360. Prerequisite: BIOL 250; CHEM 231 and 232. Corequisite: CHEM 320.

BIOL 0361. INTRODUCTION TO METHODS IN BIOTECHNOLOGY. 2nd Semester, Lab 3, 1 credit. Methods for the isolation, purification, and assay of biomolecules from tissue, plants, food, or cell extracts. Methods will include biochemical assays, spectroscopy, chromatography, and electrophoresis. Also listed as CHEM 361. Prerequisite: BIOL 251; CHEM 233 and 234. Corequisite: CHEM 322.

BIOL 0400. UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH. 1st and 2nd Semesters, Summer on Demand. 1-3 credits. Independent research on a biological subject under the guidance of a faculty member. Interested students should determine the type of problem they wish to investigate and consult the faculty member with whom they wish to work. Upon approval by the faculty advisor and Department Head, a student may register for 1-3 hours credit. No more than three hours may be counted toward major requirements. Prerequisite: junior, senior standing.

BIOL 0401/0402. SEMINAR IN BIOLOGY. 1st and 2nd Semesters. 1 credit. Required of all majors. Designed to familiarize the student with biological literature and its use in the formal presentation of scientific information. Prerequisite: Senior standing.

BIOL 401H/402H. HONORS SEMINAR. 1st and 2nd Semesters. 1 credit. Required of all majors. Designed to familiarize the student with biological literature and its use in the formal presentation of scientific information. Prerequisite: Senior standing and permission of instructor.

BIOL 0404. GENERAL HISTOLOGY. On Demand. Lect. 3, Lab 4, 4 credits. A study of the microscopic anat, omy of vertebrate tissues and organs as demonstrated by both the light microscope and the electron microscope. Prerequisite: a minimum of 16 hours of biology.

BIOL 0410. MICROTECHNIQUE. On Demand. Lect. 1, Lab 6, 3 credits. Preparation of animal and plant tissues for microscopic study. Prerequisite: A minimum of eight hours of biology and one year of chemistry.

BIOL 0450. MORE SEMINAR IN BIOLOGY. 1st and 2nd Semester. 1 credit. The MORE Seminar will be offered as a 1 credit per semester course (providing up to 4 credits for undergraduates) and is designed on a one year (2 semester) rotation. The classes will be developed as formal presentations by faculty (local and invited) and/or panel discussions of case studies led by students or faculty on issues concerning the responsible conduct of science. Formal presentations of scientific findings by students and/or faculty (local and invited) will also be an integral part of the course as will "journal club" presentations and discussions led by students. Permission of instructor required.

BIOL 0451. BIOMEDICAL LITERATURE AND DATA ANALYSIS. 1st or 2nd Semester. 1 credit. A course to introduce students to information resources at their disposal (Biological Abstracts, Index Medicus, Science Citations, Current Contents, Reviews, Symposia, computer searches, microfilm, interlibrary loan, reprints) and to develop skill in the critical analysis of scientific papers. Permission of instructor required.

BIOL 0452. COMPUTER ASSISTED BIOSTATISTICS. 1st or 2nd Semester. 1 credit. Designed to provide an opportunity for outstanding students to study advanced topics not covered in required courses. The student is expected to work independently under the supervision and with the assistance of a staff member. Permission of instructor required.

COURSES FOR GRADUATE AND ADVANCED UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS

BIOL O500. HISTORY OF BIOLOGY. On Demand. Lect. 2, 2 credits. This is a lecture and discussion course intended to familiarize the student with the accomplishments and philosophies of the individuals responsible for the development and advancement of biology as a science. Emphasis will be placed on discoveries and ideas which influenced the direction of subsequent biological study.

BIOL 0501. PROTOZOOLOGY. On Demand. Lect. 3, Lab 3, 3 credits. Morphology, physiology, life history and adaptations of protozoa. Prerequisite: One year of biology or consent of instructor.

BIOL 0502. ADVANCED MICROBIOLOGY. 1st Semester. Lect. 2, Lab 3, 3 credits. Introduction to microbial biochemistry and physiology, nutrition, growth, composition, metabolism, and regulation in the context of macro-molecular organization of selected bacteria. Prerequisite. BIOL 0301.

BIOL 0503. EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY. 1st Semester. Lect. 1, Lab 6, 4 credits. A laboratory course designed to provide an introduction to methods, experimental techniques and instruments used in biomedical research. Biochemical theory will be discussed for justification of "best" experimental procedures.

BIOL 0505. PARASITOLOGY. 2nd Semester. Lect. 3, Lab 3, 4 credits. The fundamental principles governing parasites of man and domestic animals. Emphasis is given to the physiology, morphology, life history, diagnosis, control and host-parasite relationships. Labs will include most recent techniques for collecting and preserving parasitological specimens. Prerequisite: minimum of 12 hours of biology, junior or higher standing or consent of the instructor.

BIOL 0507. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY. On Demand. Lect. 2, Lab 6, 4 credits. Fundamental concepts of functions and metabolism in seed plants, including physical and chemical concepts of osmosis, diffusion, water relations, photosynthesis, respiration, enzymes, growth and development and growth regulators. Prerequisites: 16 hours of Biology, CHEM 0320 and Junior Standing.

BIOL 0509. PHYSIOLOGICAL GENETICS. On Demand. Lect. 3, 3 credits. The basic principles of molecular genetics with detailed study of structure function, control and alteration of the individual gene; to include current techniques used in the study of molecular genetics. Emphasis will be placed on eukaryotic and developing systems. Prerequisite: minimum 16 hours of biology and BIOL 0309 or permission of the instructor.

 

BIOL 0510. ANIMAL BEHAVIOR. On Demand. Lect. 3, Lab 3, 4 credits. An introduction to animal behavior, with emphasis on the animal's relationship to the environment, the ontogeny of behavior, and the physiological basis of behavior. Prerequisite: Minimum of 15 hours in biology.

BIOL 0511. VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY. On Demand. Lect. 3, Lab 3, 4 credits. A course designed to acquaint the student with the biology of vertebrate populations in their natural habitats. Prerequisite: 15 hours in biology.

BIOL 0513. GENERAL ENTOMOLOGY. Alternate 1st Semesters. Lect. 3, Lab 3, 4 credits. Biology, recognition, and modern methods of controlling major insect pests of plants and animals. Prerequisite: one year of bioilogy and/or Instructor’s Permission.

BIOL 0515. MEDICAL MYCOLOGY. On Demand. Lect. 3, Lab 3, 4 credits. A study of the fungi which cause superficial, intermediate and systemic mycoses in man and other mammals. The laboratory will consist of an in-depth study of the morphology of common contaminants and of pathogenic species of fungi.

BIOL 0518. IMMUNOLOGY. On Demand. Lect. 3, Lab 3, 4 credits. The basic principles of immunity and hypersentivity, mechanisms of antibody formation, chemical and physical characteristics of antigens and antibodies, auto-immunity phenomena, allergy and transplantation immunity.

BIOL 0519. HUMAN GENETICS. Alternate 2nd Semesters. Lect. 3, 3 credits. A modern presentation of the principles of human genetics which emphasizes classical and molecular approaches to understanding the nature of the gene. Information will be derived from family, pedigree, population and molecular studies. Prerequisites: BIOL 0309, MATH 0107, one year of chemistry or permission of the instructor.

BIOL 0530. ORGANIC EVOLUTION. On demand. Lect. 3, 3 credits. The record and mechanism of evolution. rerequisites: 4 semesters of biology, including BIOL 0309. Senior standing or above, or permission of the instructor.

BIOL 0540. FOUNDATIONS OF CANCER BIOLOGY. 1st or 2nd Semester. Lect. 3, Lab 0, 3 credits. This course will encompass the fundamentals of cell biology that underlie cancer and cancer progression. In doing so, it will examine selected cutting-edge approaches and findings from the areas of basic cancer research, clinical studies, and community research focusing on prevention and intervention strategies. Prerequisite: Graduate or advanced undergraduate status and two of the following three courses or their equivalents: BIOL 309, BIOL 340, BIOL 360; or permission of instructor.

BIOL 0550. PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES IN ELECTRON MICROSCOPY. On Demand. 3 credits. Principles and techniques involved in the preparation and study of biological material for electron microscopy. Note: Due to the nature of the instrumentation and techniques involved, this course will commence in the fall and end during the spring semester. Prerequisite: advanced undergraduate or graduate status only and permission of the instructor.

BIOL 0551. ADVANCED ELECTRON MICROSCOPY TECHNOLOGY. On Demand. Lect. 2, Lab 6, 4 credits. Presentation of training in advanced principles and techniques in biological electron microscopy. Emphasis will be placed on hands-on laboratory experience in (a) various biological tissue preparative techniques, including the chemistry of fixation, dehydration and embedding; (b) ultramicrotomy, including the use and care of glass and diamond knives, (c) specific stains and tissue preparation for demonstration of cytochemical cellular components; (d) physical principles of the electron microscope and the use and routine maintenance of the electron microscope; (e) photographic principles and techniques including the chemistry of emulsions, developers, fixers, and the interaction of photographic materials with electrons; (f) cellular ultrastructure and interpretation of data including structure and function of cellular organelles, the ultrastructure of specific cell types, and the correlation structure and function. Prerequisite: BIOL 0550 or consent of instructor.

BIOL 0560. CYTOGENETICS. 1st Semester. Lect. 3, Lab 4, 4 credits. An in-depth study of chromosomes; their chemistry, structure, function, aberrations, and behavior. Emphasis will be placed on the human chromosomal complement. Prerequisite: 16 hours of biology to include BIOL 0309.

BIOL 0561. ADVANCED CYTOGENETIC METHODOLOGY. On Demand. Lect. 2, Lab 6, 4 credits. An in-depth presentation of the methodologies of chromosome study. Emphasis will be placed on hands on laboratory experience in (a) culture of cell types used in cytogenetic diagnosis; (b) preparation and recognition of banded chromosomes; (c) recognition of the major types of numerical and structural chromosome abnormalities and (d) photomicrographic principles and techniques including visible and fluorescent light techniques, the interactions of light with film and the preparation of prints from negatives. These topics will be considered in the context of modern cytogenetic studies. Prerequisite: BIOL 0309 and an additional 12 hours in biological sciences.

BIOL 0565. BIOTECHNOLOGY. 2nd Semester. Lect. 2, Lab 6, 4 credits. This course is designed to introduce advanced undergraduates and graduate students to basic recombinant DNA techniques including growth and manipulation of phages and their bacterial hosts; isolation, quantitation, and electrophoretic analysis of DNA; restriction and ligation of DNA cloning in lambda, M13 and plasmid vectors; and site-specific mutagenesis. The focus of the course is hands-on experimentation; however, time will be devoted to discussion of the application of these and other techniques to a variety of research problems. By the end of the course, the student should have a working knowledge of basic recombinant technology, should have an introductory knowledge of more specialized techniques and should be familiar with the terminology and resource literature of genetic engineering. Prerequisite: BIOL 0230/0231, 0250/0251, 0301/0303.

BIOL 0595. SPECIAL ASSIGNMENTS. 1st and 2nd Semesters. 1-3 credits. Special work, such as directed reading, independent study of research, supervised library, laboratory or fieldwork, or presentation of material not available in the formal courses of the department. Upon approval by the faculty advisor and Department Head, a student may register for 1-3 hours credit. The field in which the work is offered will be indicated in the student's record. Prerequisite: Senior oor graduate4 standing.

BIOL 0596. NEUROSCIENCE. 1st Semester. Lect. 3, Lab 3, 4 credits. Course will consist of instruction through lecture and laboratory sessions. Lectures will include: introduction to the nervous system, cellular neuroscience, synaptic functions, structure and function of biological membranes, ion transport through membranes, physiology of ion channels, mechanism of receptor regulation, functional reconstitution of membranes, phospholipid bilayers, neural plasticity, learning and memory. Laboratory sessions will include dissection of sheep brain, making patch pipettes, bilayer formation on bimolecular lipid membrane chamber and reconstitution of receptor proteins on large and small bilayers, multi and single channel recordings, computer analysis of single channel data. Prerequisite: BIOL 0120/0121, 0230/0231.