The graduate study program in biology leads to the Master of Science degree. The offering of a graduate degree in biology has several purposes. One of these is to offer students who have attained the baccalaureate degree in biology or other natural sciences the opportunity to broaden and increase their knowledge in the biological sciences. Another is the opportunity for students to enter into or expand their experience in the area of experimental research in biology. These objectives may be achieved through selection of elective courses offered in this department and allied areas (chemistry, agriculture, veterinary medicine, etc.), and by the selection of a research area of concentration. The latter is with the assistance of a major advisor in the department who will usually act as the student's major professor. All graduate students are required to teach for one (1) year in the Freshman Biology Program. Admission: General Admission to graduate study at Tuskegee University is outlined under the Regulations and Procedures for Graduate Instruction. In addition, the prospective candidate should normally have completed an undergraduate curriculum equivalent to the one followed at Tuskegee University. Examinations: Satisfactory performance on qualifying examinations by the Department may be required of the student prior to application and approval of candidacy. The Graduate Record Examination (GRE) is required prior to admission to candidacy. A final comprehensive oral examination is required covering the general field of Biology and the content of the thesis and research.

FACILITIES AND CENTERS. Teaching and laboratory facilities are housed primarily in Armstrong Hall. A well-equipped multimedia center exists in the building to complement and reinforce effective teaching and learning. There are two computer laboratories in the department for teaching and student use. Located in Armstrong Hall and Carver Research Foundation, both computer facilities provide access to the World Wide Web. Facilities for undergraduate and graduate research may be available in Armstrong Hall, Carver Research Laboratories, or in laboratories in other departments by special arrangement.

Specialized Facilities--Center for Biomedical Research. The Center for Biomedical Research funded by the National Institutes of Health under the auspices of Research Centers for Minority Institutions (RCMI) is located in the Carver Research Laboratories. The Center houses most of the core facilities and many of the research laboratories utilized by the Biology faculty members and other investigators throughout the University. The core facilities provide investigators with technical support and the utilization of state-of-the art equipment in imaging, cell culture, cell sorting and flow cytometry, and biotechnology. Also, computer facilities for database utilization are provided to researchers in epidemiological, genomic and proteomic research through the Center for Computational Epidemiology, Bioinformatics and Risk Analysis which is located in the School of Veterinary Medicine. Enhancement of the bioinformatic capabilities at the University is facilitated through a collaboration with the Genomics Core Facility at the University of Alabama at Birmingham.

The Biotechnology Center, located in Armstrong Hall and Carver Research Laboratories contains equipment for cloning, gene expression, and detection and analysis of biopolymers. Some of the equipment utilized for teaching and research includes: HPLC, LPLC, microcentrifuges, preparatory centrifuges, ultracentrifuges and a UV cross-linker for biopolymer isolation, purification, and modification; electrophoretic systems (horizontal and vertical gels, including DNA sequencing gels), thermocyclers for PCR and UV/VIS spectrophotometers. There are two walk-in cold rooms maintained at 4°C. In addition, the Center has access to a power-based, computer Laboratory Data Management System (LDMS). The system serves as a core data management system for data collection and interdisciplinary research project development. The LDMS has the software for word processing, database, spreadsheet graphics and data analysis. The LDMS has the program and database for genome analysis; DNA sequence alignment, site-specific mutagenesis, 3D structure and image analysis.

The Tuskegee University Center for Cancer Research (TUCCR), located in Carver Research Laboratories, was established by the Biology Department in collaboration with other disciplines at the University and the Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. The purpose of the center is to promote high-quality cancer research and to educate cancer researchers and the community about cancer. The Center provides a focal point for cancer research and education by bringing together faculty and students from different disciplines at the University and other institutions outside of the University. The overall goal is to decrease the incidence and spread of cancer in the African American community through two interdependent means: 1) Research--Exploring the nature of cancer and its causes, which in turn will lead to the development of new approaches to prevent and treat cancer; 2) Education--Educating future generations of cancer researchers, providing continuing education to keep researchers current on recent advances, and providing information to the community through support groups, community outreach, health fairs and other programs related to cancer prevention, early detection and treatment.

BIOL O500. HISTORY OF BIOLOGY. On Demand. Lect. 2, 2 credits. This is a lecture and discussion course intended to familiarize the student with the accomplishments and philosophies of the individuals responsible for the development and advancement of biology as a science. Emphasis will be placed on discoveries and ideas which influenced the direction of subsequent biological study.

BIOL 0501. PROTOZOOLOGY. On Demand. Lect. 3, Lab 3, 3 credits. Morphology, physiology, life history and adaptations of protozoa. Prerequisite: One year of biology or consent of instructor.

BIOL 0502. ADVANCED MICROBIOLOGY. 1st Semester. Lect. 2, Lab 3, 3 credits. Introduction to microbial biochemistry and physiology, nutrition, growth, composition, metabolism, and regulation in the context of macro-molecular organization of selected bacteria. Prerequisite. BIOL 0301.

BIOL 0503. EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY. 1st Semester. Lect. 1, Lab 6, 4 credits. A laboratory course designed to provide an introduction to methods, experimental techniques and instruments used in biomedical research. Biochemical theory will be discussed for justification of "best" experimental procedures.

BIOL 0505. PARASITOLOGY. 2nd Semester. Lect. 3, Lab 3, 4 credits. The fundamental principles governing parasites of man and domestic animals. Emphasis is given to the physiology, morphology, life history, diagnosis, control and host-parasite relationships. Labs will include most recent techniques for collecting and preserving parasitological specimens. Prerequisite: minimum of 12 hours of biology, junior or higher standing or consent of the instructor.

. On Demand. Lect. 2, Lab 6, 4 credits. Fundamental concepts of functions and metabolism in seed plants, including physical and chemical concepts of osmosis, diffusion, water relations, photosynthesis, respiration, enzymes, growth and development and growth regulators. Prerequisites: 16 hours of Biology, CHEM 0320 and Junior Standing.

BIOL 0509. PHYSIOLOGICAL GENETICS. On Demand. Lect. 3, 3 credits. The basic principles of molecular genetics with detailed study of structure function, control and alteration of the individual gene; to include current techniques used in the study of molecular genetics. Emphasis will be placed on eukaryotic and developing systems. Prerequisite: minimum 16 hours of biology and BIOL 0309 or permission of the instructor.

BIOL 0510. ANIMAL BEHAVIOR. On Demand. Lect. 3, Lab 3, 4 credits. An introduction to animal behavior, with emphasis on the animal's relationship to the environment, the ontogeny of behavior, and the physiological basis of behavior. Prerequisite: Minimum of 15 hours in biology.

BIOL 0511. VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY. On Demand. Lect. 3, Lab 3, 4 credits. A course designed to acquaint the student with the biology of vertebrate populations in their natural habitats. Prerequisite: 15 hours in biology.

BIOL 0513. GENERAL ENTOMOLOGY. Alternate 1st Semesters. Lect. 3, Lab 3, 4 credits. Biology, recognition, and modern methods of controlling major insect pests of plants and animals. Prerequisite: one year of bioilogy and/or Instructor's Permission.

On Demand. Lect. 3, Lab 3, 4 credits. A study of the fungi which cause superficial, intermediate and systemic mycoses in man and other mammals. The laboratory will consist of an in-depth study of the morphology of common contaminants and of pathogenic species of fungi.

BIOL 0518. IMMUNOLOGY. On Demand. Lect. 3, Lab 3, 4 credits. The basic principles of immunity and hypersentivity, mechanisms of antibody formation, chemical and physical characteristics of antigens and antibodies, auto-immunity phenomena, allergy and transplantation immunity.

BIOL 0519. HUMAN GENETICS. Alternate 2nd Semesters. Lect. 3, 3 credits. A modern presentation of the principles of human genetics which emphasizes classical and molecular approaches to understanding the nature of the gene. Information will be derived from family, pedigree, population and molecular studies. Prerequisites: BIOL 0309, MATH 0107, one year of chemistry or permission of the instructor.

. On demand. Lect. 3, 3 credits. The record and mechanism of evolution. rerequisites: 4 semesters of biology, including BIOL 0309. Senior standing or above, or permission of the instructor.

. 1st or 2nd Semester. Lect. 3, Lab 0, 3 credits. This course will encompass the fundamentals of cell biology that underlie cancer and cancer progression. In doing so, it will examine selected cutting-edge approaches and findings from the areas of basic cancer research, clinical studies, and community research focusing on prevention and intervention strategies. Prerequisite: Graduate or advanced undergraduate status and two of the following three courses or their equivalents: BIOL 309, BIOL 340, BIOL 360; or permission of instructor.

BIOL 0550. PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES IN ELECTRON MICROSCOPY. On Demand. 3 credits. Principles and techniques involved in the preparation and study of biological material for electron microscopy. Note: Due to the nature of the instrumentation and techniques involved, this course will commence in the fall and end during the spring semester. Prerequisite: advanced undergraduate or graduate status only and permission of the instructor.

BIOL 0551. ADVANCED ELECTRON MICROSCOPY TECHNOLOGY. On Demand. Lect. 2, Lab 6, 4 credits. Presentation of training in advanced principles and techniques in biological electron microscopy. Emphasis will be placed on hands-on laboratory experience in (a) various biological tissue preparative techniques, including the chemistry of fixation, dehydration and embedding; (b) ultramicrotomy, including the use and care of glass and diamond knives, (c) specific stains and tissue preparation for demonstration of cytochemical cellular components; (d) physical principles of the electron microscope and the use and routine maintenance of the electron microscope; (e) photographic principles and techniques including the chemistry of emulsions, developers, fixers, and the interaction of photographic materials with electrons; (f) cellular ultrastructure and interpretation of data including structure and function of cellular organelles, the ultrastructure of specific cell types, and the correlation structure and function. Prerequisite: BIOL 0550 or consent of instructor.

BIOL 0560. CYTOGENETICS. 1st Semester. Lect. 3, Lab 4, 4 credits. An in-depth study of chromosomes; their chemistry, structure, function, aberrations, and behavior. Emphasis will be placed on the human chromosomal complement. Prerequisite: 16 hours of biology to include BIOL 0309.

. On Demand. Lect. 2, Lab 6, 4 credits. An in-depth presentation of the methodologies of chromosome study. Emphasis will be placed on hands on laboratory experience in (a) culture of cell types used in cytogenetic diagnosis; (b) preparation and recognition of banded chromosomes; (c) recognition of the major types of numerical and structural chromosome abnormalities and (d) photomicrographic principles and techniques including visible and fluorescent light techniques, the interactions of light with film and the preparation of prints from negatives. These topics will be considered in the context of modern cytogenetic studies. Prerequisite: BIOL 0309 and an additional 12 hours in biological sciences.

BIOL 0565. BIOTECHNOLOGY. 2nd Semester. Lect. 2, Lab 6, 4 credits. This course is designed to introduce advanced undergraduates and graduate students to basic recombinant DNA techniques including growth and manipulation of phages and their bacterial hosts; isolation, quantitation, and electrophoretic analysis of DNA; restriction and ligation of DNA cloning in lambda, M13 and plasmid vectors; and site-specific mutagenesis. The focus of the course is hands-on experimentation; however, time will be devoted to discussion of the application of these and other techniques to a variety of research problems. By the end of the course, the student should have a working knowledge of basic recombinant technology, should have an introductory knowledge of more specialized techniques and should be familiar with the terminology and resource literature of genetic engineering. Prerequisite: BIOL 0230/0231, 0250/0251, 0301/0303.

BIOL 0595. SPECIAL ASSIGNMENTS. 1st and 2nd Semesters. 1-3 credits. Special work, such as directed reading, independent study of research, supervised library, laboratory or fieldwork, or presentation of material not available in the formal courses of the department. Upon approval by the faculty advisor and Department Head, a student may register for 1-3 hours credit. The field in which the work is offered will be indicated in the student's record. Prerequisite: Senior oor graduate4 standing.

BIOL 0596. NEUROSCIENCE. 1st Semester. Lect. 3, Lab 3, 4 credits. Course will consist of instruction through lecture and laboratory sessions. Lectures will include: introduction to the nervous system, cellular neuroscience, synaptic functions, structure and function of biological membranes, ion transport through membranes, physiology of ion channels, mechanism of receptor regulation, functional reconstitution of membranes, phospholipid bilayers, neural plasticity, learning and memory. Laboratory sessions will include dissection of sheep brain, making patch pipettes, bilayer formation on bimolecular lipid membrane chamber and reconstitution of receptor proteins on large and small bilayers, multi and single channel recordings, computer analysis of single channel data. Prerequisite: BIOL 0120/0121, 0230/0231.

BIOL 0604. GENERAL CYTOLOGY. 1st and 2nd Semesters. Lect. 3, Lab 3, 4 credits. Morphology, chemical organization, and function of cytoplasmic and nuclear components of the cell. Cytological and cytochemical techniques. Prerequisite: course in organic chemistry and consent of instructor.

BIOL 0605. EXPERIMENTAL PARASITOLOGY. On Demand. Lect. 2, Lab 3, 3 credits. An advanced study encompassing animal parasites. Included are adaptations to parasitism, host-parasite relationships, immunological aspects and experimental procedures employed in the analysis of parasitism. Prerequisite: BIOL 0505 or its equivalent.

BIOL 0610. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY. On Demand. Lect. 3, 3 credits. A lecture discussion course with emphasis on gene structure, mutation, evolution, genetic load and expression, the biochemical consequences of these on DNA replication, RNA transcription, and protein synthesis. Attention will also be focused on the molecular basis of regulatory mechanisms in living systems.

. 1st Semester. Lect. 3, 3 credits. Same as Plant & Soil Science 650. Chemistry, physiology and practical application of phytohormone, vitamins in development of plants. Prerequisite: BIOL 0507 or its equivalent.

BIOL 0630. EXPERIMENTAL EMBRYOLOGY. Offered on Demand. Lect. 2, Lab 4, 4 credits. An analysis of development in the embryo and other morphogenetic systems as revealed by experimentation. Included are topics and experiments in classical experimental embryology, chemical embryology, tissue interaction, hormonal control of development of regeneration. Prerequisite: BIOL 0302, or its equivalent.

BIOL 0640. EXPERIMENTAL CYTOLOGY. Offered on Demand. Lect. 1, Lab 5, 3 credits. Discussions of current problems in some areas of cytological research. Selection of and experimentation with a research problem by individuals in the course form the main direction for discussion. Prerequisite: BIOL 0604 or equivalent and instructor's consent.

BIOL 0650. BIOLOGY SEMINAR. 1st and 2nd Semesters. 1 credit. Required of all graduate students in biology. Review of literature and research in the various areas of biology to be presented orally. Each student will be advised by a member of the graduate faculty in biology. Prerequisite: Graduate standing in biology.


BIOL 0652. TOPICS IN MODERN BIOLOGY. 1st and 2nd Semesters. 1 credit. A one-semester course in which the main theme or topic for discussion during any semester will vary from year to year. Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

BIOL 0700. RESEARCH IN BIOLOGY. 1st and 2nd Semesters, Summer on Demand. 1-6 credits. Arranged under supervision of a major advisor in the specific area of research interest. Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

BIOL 0752. CONTINUOUS REGISTRATION. 1st and 2nd Semesters, Summer on Demand. 0 credit. For students writing a thesis and/or studying for examinations.

BIOL 0754. CANDIDATE FOR DEGREE. 0 credit. For students who have finished all requirements and are graduating that semester.