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Response of Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Disease to Nutrition Education and Exercise

By Erica Lynne Hudson, 2009, Major Professor: R Pace
Cardiovascular Disease is the number one cause of mordibity and mortality for African-American woman in the United States. Research on preventive care disparities among African-American woman show that they less often receive appropriate preventive therapy, adequate risk factor control, and cardiac catherization than other women, despite identical clinical presentations. As a result, identifying biomarkers sensitive to the onset of cardiovascular disease is requisite to prevention. Myelperoxidase (MPO) is such a marker.  MPO levels were measured before and after 6-weeks of intervention in 54 eligible African-American females, divided into three treatment groups: control, nutrition education and exercise (NEE), and exercise (E ). The weight, height, BMI and plasma analysis were evaluated to assess the effects of intervention treatments and age groups (30 to 40, 41 to 50 and 51 to 66). The blood samples were collected after an overnight fast and plasma was prepared. MPO, β-carotene, total phenols, and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) were analyzed. MPO levels were analyzed by ELISA. Plasma antioxidants were analyzed by spectrophotometer for total phenols, HPLC for β-carotene, and Microplate Reader for ORAC.  Post-intervention measurements showed a decrease in BMI and weight for the NEE group of 1.3-points and 1.4 kg, respectively, while the 41 to 50 age group decreased their BMI and weight 1-point and 0.91 kg, respectively. There was a decrease in weight of 0.9 kg for the 51 to 66, age group. Post-intervention, all total phenol concentrations increased, with the E group being the highest, and the 41 to 50 age group showing the significantly highest total phenol activity after 6-weeks (p<0.05). The ORAC hydrophilic fraction resulted in lower level post-intervention (p<0.0001) for all groups. The lipophilic fractions resulted in no significant differences.  At 6-weeks, the hydrophilic levels were highest for the E group among intervention groups, and were highest for 30 to 40 age group, among age groups. The outcomes were higher for the 30 to 40 and 51 to 66, than the 41 to 50 age groups, for the lipophilic fraction after intervention. The lipophilic fractions showed no significant differences due to interventions. MPO activity for the three groups decreased after intervention (p<0.0001); the NEE and E group MPO activities were higher than the control after intervention. The 30 to 40 age group had a higher level of MPO activity after intervention than the other two age groups. There was a decrease in plasma ORAC and MPO and an increase in plasma total phenol post-intervention, shown in the intervention and among age groups. The results of this study suggest a reduced risk for CVD post-intervention. Age influenced responses to the intervention. This study demonstrated that nutrition education and exercise are favorable interventions for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. 

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Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, 204 Campbell Hall, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088 
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